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Because the triceps dip is a compound exercise, which means it involves movement at multiple joints, it is effective at strengthening a number of muscles. However, your abdominals aren't recruited during the exercise. Instead, it's a battery of muscles surrounding your shoulders and elbows that coordinate the movement. If you're looking for a body-weight exercise like triceps dip that work the same muscles but also develop your abs, you can do close-grip pushups.
To understand what muscles triceps dips work, you've got to know what joint movements are occurring during the exercise. To do the triceps dip, stand between a shoulder-width dip bar and grip each side with your hands. Mount the bar so that your arms are straight and your feet are up off the floor. Bend your elbows to lower your body, between the parallel bars, until your elbows are bent to 90 degrees, then extend them to complete the repetition. During the exercise your shoulder joints are flexing and your elbows are extending.
The muscle that's responsible for performing elbow extension is your triceps brachii. The triceps are located at the back of your upper arms. They're considered the primary muscle during triceps dips, which means they handle the greatest percentage of the load. The triceps originate up at the back of your shoulders and run down your upper arm, inserting at your elbow.
The muscle that flexes your shoulders is your anterior deltoid -- the major muscle in your shoulder. It's divided into three sections, including the anterior head located at the front of your shoulders. Your pectoralis major, which is the biggest muscle in your chest, also contributes to shoulder flexion.
The rectus abdominis, which is the major muscle in your abdominals, runs down the front of your torso from your sternum to your pelvis. It's responsible for flexing the spine, which means it bends the spine forward. During the triceps dip, your abs, along with your lower back muscles, do isometrically contract to keep your torso erect as you lower and push yourself up on the parallel bars. The muscles work together to keep your spine from bending forward or extending back. However, this load on your abs is minimal. There are other exercises that are more effective for recruiting the muscle, including close-grip pushups.
Close-grip pushups also target your anterior deltoids and triceps. However, your abdominals are also involved, as they contract to keep your torso in an erect line while you're performing the exercise. Set your hands on the floor so that they're directly underneath your shoulders with your fingers pointed forward. Rise up onto your hands and toes so that you create a straight line through your torso and legs. Bend your elbows to lower your body toward the floor. Your elbows should stay close into your body. Once your elbows reach 90 degrees, extend them to come back up and repeat.